When it comes to meeting their nutritional needs, older adults can face tough challenges. Issues like COVID-19, chronic diseases and dementia take their toll in ways that make staying healthy an effort for seniors and their family caregivers. Isolation often creates additional obstacles.
Research conducted by Home Instead, Inc. before the coronavirus pandemic forced the increased isolation of so many, revealed that 69 percent of lonely seniors in Canada (75 percent in the U.S.) already were not getting the right amount of at least one element of nutrition.
Registered Dietitian Nutritionist Shannon Muhs offers the following tips for helping to ensure a senior is getting good nutrition:
1. Involve seniors in a meal plan.Seniors will be more likely to eat well if their menu includes foods that are not only nutritious but ones they like. Helping seniors create a plan every week can help older adults maintain a schedule of preparing and eating good food.
“Make a plan together,” Muhs said. “Hand write or type it. If there’s no plan, they can’t hit the target. Put the list on the fridge or on the mirror. Be involved with shopping, either online or in person.” Include in the plan a way for loved ones to regularly get groceries, whether it’s through delivery or by curbside pickup.
2. Create a balanced menu.
Canada’s Food Guide is a helpful tool when thinking about how to eat a balanced meal. Half of your plate should be fruits and veggies. The other half of your plate should have a portion of whole grains and proteins. “You can personalize the portions for your loved one by considering the size of their fist,” Muhs noted. “That is a good way to estimate correct portions of their body size; a fist-sized portion of a whole grain, and a palm-sized portion of a protein are appropriate.”
3. Adapt healthy alternatives.
“A lot of the foods this generation grew up with, for example apple pie, may not be ‘allowed’ in an aging adult’s meal plan due to a diagnosis or ailment,” Muhs noted. Consider cutting some calories in the recipe by slicing an apple and putting just a dab of butter and sugar on top, wrap in foil and put in the oven. You get all the yumminess that happens on the inside of the pie without the high calorie crust.
4. Avoid the extreme.
Oftentimes a caregiver or companion may think too extreme for their parent with health issues, such as diabetes, for instance, Muhs noted. “Sometimes a caregiver thinks their loved one needs to avoid all grains and carbohydrates when, in reality, they need to limit grains and carbohydrates. Total elimination can lead to low blood sugars and digestive problems.” For individuals who have heart disease or are overweight, 700 milligrams or less of sodium per larger meal is a good gauge. And some carbs are fine for diabetics. Include as many food groups as possible, and check with a senior’s doctor for a plan that is best suited to your loved one.
Fruits and vegetables are particularly important to a healthy senior diet. While nutritionists often focus on fresh ingredients, canned and frozen foods can be healthy options as well. Fresh may not be as readily accessible for seniors who don’t live close to their loved ones or who many not have the ability to get groceries as often. “Canned is an acceptable option,” Muhs said.
6. Enhance the flavour of foods.
While access to nutritious foods is important, so too is flavouring food, such as veggies, to improve taste. While many seniors may be watching their weight or have dietary restrictions, Muhs advises that it’s OK to put butter or a light tub margarine on vegetables to make them taste good. A light tub margarine provides less saturated fats for those with heart disease, she added. Why not experiment with herbs as well? Check out this guide to matching herbs and spices with the right veggies.
7. Encourage healthy snacks.
Three meals a day isn’t always an option for seniors, Muhs noted. Supplement meals with healthy snacks such as a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, fresh or canned fruit chunks, veggie sticks with a light ranch dip, cheese and crackers, or a wheat tortilla roll-up with turkey, lettuce and cheese.
Check out these healthy recipes for inspiration.